The story of Penicillin began with Alexander Fleming, at St Mary’s Hospital, London in 1928
Fleming discovered that the mould Penicillium notatum produces a substance that kills bacteria. A team at the Dunn School of Pathology, Oxford University, including Howard Florey, Ernest Chain , and Norman Heatley demonstrated the clinical utility of Penicillin and worked on procedures to optimize its production and isolation. For their work on Penicillin, Florey and Chain were aware the Nobel Prize with Fleming in 1944. Oxford Nobel Prize winner Dorothy Hodgkin defined the chemical structure by X-ray analysis of crystals of a penicillin.